Young students learn through exploration and problem-solving and begin to apply their knowledge of the world and to use representations for conveying ideas. Beginning connections are made between their informal knowledge of quantity, shape, size, and pattern and the formal language of mathematics. During the kindergarten year, communication and cooperation are enhanced through numerous opportunities for independent and group activities that allow students to utilize the skills of reasoning and proof.

Mathematics is introduced through activities that develop and deepen students’ conceptual understanding. The physical arrangement of the kindergarten classroom allows for exploration, manipulation of objects, and active involvement. Manipulative materials enable students to engage in their own learning and broaden simple mathematical concepts. They benefit from well-planned, thought-provoking experiences that include hands-on activities as they formally begin their study of the world of mathematics.

In kindergarten, mathematical concepts include recognizing patterns and shapes, demonstrating one-to-one correspondence, making comparisons, using classification skills, and ordering sets of objects. By the end of kindergarten, students are able to recognize numbers and shapes, replicate simple patterns, and communicate using mathematical vocabulary.

*from the 2009 Alabama Course of Study: Mathematics. p. 9*